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collaboration


Women’s Center for Creative Work

For the second year of the contemporary art initiative /five, The Huntington is partnering with the Women’s Center for Creative Work (WCCW) to select seven artists who will create new works investigating the theme of collecting and collections. The seven artists will conduct research across the Huntington’s art, botanical, and library holdings, and then create artworks that respond to the collections and provide engaging, thoughtful, provocative, and inspiring experiences for Huntington audiences. The artworks could take any number of forms including site-specific installations, readings, events, podcasts, performance, or media-based works. The results of this collaboration will be announced throughout the year and will culminate in an exhibition in fall 2017.

 

Founded in 2013, WCCW is a Los Angeles–based nonprofit organization that cultivates feminist creative communities and practices through its facilities, residency programs, and rapidly growing network of over 15,000 followers.

projects


Jheanelle Garriques


In 2014, when she was still a student at USC, Jheanelle Garriques started her writing salon, Naked Narratives. She wanted to create a space for femme-identified people from a variety of backgrounds to explore their lived experiences through writing. She knew a fair amount about the history of female coteries, such as 18th-century women’s clubs, but until she began exploring The Huntington’s library collections, she did not know about Elizabeth Montagu, who started what was in many ways a feminist writing salon in London, circa 1760. The Huntington Library holds correspondence between Montagu and her female peers, which Garriques has been poring over. “I’m trying to draw a thread through the experiences of these female-identified people in 18th-century Britain and the femmes that I’m working with,” she says. Garriques has assembled a salon of women in their 20s and 30s to work with her at The Huntington. Together, they will develop an anthology of writing, and Garriques also plans to compose a chapbook, combining the writing of Naked Narratives participants with writings from Montagu’s salon participants. She wants to “breathe new life into the Montagu collection,” she says, while tracing deep connections between feminists of the past and present.

Kiki Loveday (née kerrie welsh)


On February 23, 1900, actress Olga Nethersole was arrested at a theater in New York and charged with “giving indecent and immoral public exhibition.” She had been performing on stage as a modernized version of Sappho, the ancient Greek female writer known for her love poems, in an openly sexual manner. The scandal surrounding Nethersole’s performance intrigued Kiki Loveday (née kerrie welsh), an experimental filmmaker now working on her doctorate in Film and Digital Media at University of California, Santa Cruz. Famous as Sappho may be—“She’s really the only female figure that reaches the cultural saturation of someone like Homer,” Loveday notes—little historical information about her life exists. But imagined versions of her story abound. Over 20 films about Sappho were made in the 1920s and 1930s, Loveday points out, describing the poet as “a metaphor for historical memory.” During her residency at The Huntington, Loveday will collect and study the hundreds of references made to Sappho in the Library’s archive. Sappho’s words and obscurity, however, will ultimately serve more as the inspiration than the subject of the collection of queer love stories that Loveday will gather from other, less formal sources. Evidence of such love stories is often destroyed, whether by queer individuals or their loved ones, and then omitted from historical records. Loveday will contact organizations, private individuals, and public figures, asking them to help her in her search for material—primarily first-person recollections—suited to her project. Come November, she will exhibit her newly made collection of love stories alongside archival material related to the ancient poet. “The language of love comes from Sappho,” says Loveday. The love stories come from many others.

Soyoung Shin


French revolutionaries saved the thick, ornately hand-woven carpet called Astrology from Versailles after the execution of King Louis XVI. “It was such a nice rug,” says artist Soyoung Shin. “It would have been a pain to get rid of it.” Instead, post-Revolution craftspeople replaced the fleurs-de-lis—the stylized lilies used to symbolize dynastic power—with a garland of oranges. The rug, which has been on view at The Huntington since 1928, inspired Shin. She plans to make her own revisionist history tapestry during the WCCW residency, though hers will revise a different history: that of contemporary computing. Shin, who studied computer science as an undergraduate and incorporates technology and domestic craft into her artwork, points out that the punch card led to the pixel, and that, earlier, the Jacquard weaving process informed the invention of the punch card. All modern computing, despite the endemic sexism in the industry, thus stems from a craft now conventionally viewed as feminine. “I’m trying to put all that back together,” Shin says.

Juliana Wisdom


“It’s just kind of bursting at the seams with this opulence and femininity,” artist Juliana Wisdom says of historic, decorative porcelain. Her research in The Huntington’s art collections focuses on porcelain made in the French manufactory at Sèvres, France—the museum owns, among other objects, a delicate pink and floral lidded dish from 1757. Wisdom became interested in the women who worked on Sèvres porcelain. She kept finding bits of information hinting at the role women played. But mostly she found absences in the historical record, suggesting that the names and identities of female craftspeople had been omitted. “That really sparked the project of filling in the gaps,” she says. She expects her research to inform the work that she is making. She is working on three sculptures, one large and two smaller vessels, that will incorporate decorative elements from the Sèvres porcelain but also attempt to suggest, through their forms and the imagery they incorporate, a different story about women’s labor. “Studying how these objects were made and who made them can be a way to transform how we think about history,” she says.

Olivia Chumacero and Sarita Dougherty


Painter Sarita Dougherty usually works from life, so she has been bringing her oil paints to The Huntington’s gardens and observing the spring blooms. Her collaborator, Olivia Chumacero, has been bringing her camera, beginning her work on an abstract, surrealistic film. In the past, Dougherty and Chumacero have worked together to do research, performances, and installations honoring nature, and Chumacero founded the organization Everything is Medicine to teach people about traditional uses of native plants. The two artists are studying the native and uncultivated plants in The Huntington’s gardens as well as the cultivated collections, getting to know the flora while documenting it through painting and video. When they first started coming to the gardens, they found the Ceanothus—also known as California lilac—in full bloom. “They were huge and gorgeous, bursting all over,” says Dougherty, noting that native Californians have used the plant for generations to make soap, among other things. At The Huntington, it can be difficult to find truly uncultivated native plants; every plant here is in some way managed, even if just by being watered by a sprinkler. But the Ceanothus serves the ecosystem in observable ways, offering shade, serving as a habitat for animals, and providing pollen to many eager pollinators. For the first phase of their project, Dougherty and Chumacero did a case study—through painting and film—of this plant, trying to convey its relationship to its environment. They will return at the height of summer and fall to do subsequent case studies in painting and film of small groups of native plants, contrasting these with studies of flora in The Huntington’s more formal, cultivated gardens. They will also harvest seeds and use the native plants to the extent allowed, not just observing but building symbiotic relationships with the flora and inviting visitors to do the same during interactive workshops they plan to host in the fall.

 

Zya Levy

“I really view plants as storytellers,” says botanist Zya Levy, who co-founded the project We the Weeds in Philadelphia. She and her collaborator, Kate Pomerantz, would lead walking tours through the city, showing what plants and weeds in particular could say about the environment. Certain weeds become resistant to toxins, for instance, to survive in a city’s industrial areas. Researching at The Huntington is different, however, because, unlike urban weeds, most of the plants at The Huntington didn’t serendipitously take root in the gardens. As a result, they tell different kinds of stories. Levy has begun to study the Golden Barrel Cactus, of which The Huntington has many. The ball-shaped plant existed only in a volcanic valley in Mexico until a German collector, Heinrich Hidman, brought it back to Germany in the late 1800s, turning it into a collector’s item. Thanks to over-eager collectors and flooding caused by a dam project, the cactus became endangered in its native habitat but ubiquitous elsewhere. “You see it in front of gas stations in Los Angeles,” Levy observes. She is exploring how to tell the stories of such plants—whether through sketches, photographs, or audio collages—in ways that will convey the full effect they have on our wild and urban environments.

 

Jheanelle Garriques


In 2014, when she was still a student at USC, Jheanelle Garriques started her writing salon, Naked Narratives. She wanted to create a space for femme-identified people from a variety of backgrounds to explore their lived experiences through writing. She knew a fair amount about the history of female coteries, such as 18th-century women’s clubs, but until she began exploring The Huntington’s library collections, she did not know about Elizabeth Montagu, who started what was in many ways a feminist writing salon in London, circa 1760. The Huntington Library holds correspondence between Montagu and her female peers, which Garriques has been poring over. “I’m trying to draw a thread through the experiences of these female-identified people in 18th-century Britain and the femmes that I’m working with,” she says. Garriques has assembled a salon of women in their 20s and 30s to work with her at The Huntington. Together, they will develop an anthology of writing, and Garriques also plans to compose a chapbook, combining the writing of Naked Narratives participants with writings from Montagu’s salon participants. She wants to “breathe new life into the Montagu collection,” she says, while tracing deep connections between feminists of the past and present.

Kiki Loveday (née kerrie welsh)


On February 23, 1900, actress Olga Nethersole was arrested at a theater in New York and charged with “giving indecent and immoral public exhibition.” She had been performing on stage as a modernized version of Sappho, the ancient Greek female writer known for her love poems, in an openly sexual manner. The scandal surrounding Nethersole’s performance intrigued Kiki Loveday (née kerrie welsh), an experimental filmmaker now working on her doctorate in Film and Digital Media at University of California, Santa Cruz. Famous as Sappho may be—“She’s really the only female figure that reaches the cultural saturation of someone like Homer,” Loveday notes—little historical information about her life exists. But imagined versions of her story abound. Over 20 films about Sappho were made in the 1920s and 1930s, Loveday points out, describing the poet as “a metaphor for historical memory.” During her residency at The Huntington, Loveday will collect and study the hundreds of references made to Sappho in the Library’s archive. Sappho’s words and obscurity, however, will ultimately serve more as the inspiration than the subject of the collection of queer love stories that Loveday will gather from other, less formal sources. Evidence of such love stories is often destroyed, whether by queer individuals or their loved ones, and then omitted from historical records. Loveday will contact organizations, private individuals, and public figures, asking them to help her in her search for material—primarily first-person recollections—suited to her project. Come November, she will exhibit her newly made collection of love stories alongside archival material related to the ancient poet. “The language of love comes from Sappho,” says Loveday. The love stories come from many others.

Soyoung Shin


French revolutionaries saved the thick, ornately hand-woven carpet called Astrology from Versailles after the execution of King Louis XVI. “It was such a nice rug,” says artist Soyoung Shin. “It would have been a pain to get rid of it.” Instead, post-Revolution craftspeople replaced the fleurs-de-lis—the stylized lilies used to symbolize dynastic power—with a garland of oranges. The rug, which has been on view at The Huntington since 1928, inspired Shin. She plans to make her own revisionist history tapestry during the WCCW residency, though hers will revise a different history: that of contemporary computing. Shin, who studied computer science as an undergraduate and incorporates technology and domestic craft into her artwork, points out that the punch card led to the pixel, and that, earlier, the Jacquard weaving process informed the invention of the punch card. All modern computing, despite the endemic sexism in the industry, thus stems from a craft now conventionally viewed as feminine. “I’m trying to put all that back together,” Shin says.

Juliana Wisdom


“It’s just kind of bursting at the seams with this opulence and femininity,” artist Juliana Wisdom says of historic, decorative porcelain. Her research in The Huntington’s art collections focuses on porcelain made in the French manufactory at Sèvres, France—the museum owns, among other objects, a delicate pink and floral lidded dish from 1757. Wisdom became interested in the women who worked on Sèvres porcelain. She kept finding bits of information hinting at the role women played. But mostly she found absences in the historical record, suggesting that the names and identities of female craftspeople had been omitted. “That really sparked the project of filling in the gaps,” she says. She expects her research to inform the work that she is making. She is working on three sculptures, one large and two smaller vessels, that will incorporate decorative elements from the Sèvres porcelain but also attempt to suggest, through their forms and the imagery they incorporate, a different story about women’s labor. “Studying how these objects were made and who made them can be a way to transform how we think about history,” she says.

Olivia Chumacero and Sarita Dougherty


Painter Sarita Dougherty usually works from life, so she has been bringing her oil paints to The Huntington’s gardens and observing the spring blooms. Her collaborator, Olivia Chumacero, has been bringing her camera, beginning her work on an abstract, surrealistic film. In the past, Dougherty and Chumacero have worked together to do research, performances, and installations honoring nature, and Chumacero founded the organization Everything is Medicine to teach people about traditional uses of native plants. The two artists are studying the native and uncultivated plants in The Huntington’s gardens as well as the cultivated collections, getting to know the flora while documenting it through painting and video. When they first started coming to the gardens, they found the Ceanothus—also known as California lilac—in full bloom. “They were huge and gorgeous, bursting all over,” says Dougherty, noting that native Californians have used the plant for generations to make soap, among other things. At The Huntington, it can be difficult to find truly uncultivated native plants; every plant here is in some way managed, even if just by being watered by a sprinkler. But the Ceanothus serves the ecosystem in observable ways, offering shade, serving as a habitat for animals, and providing pollen to many eager pollinators. For the first phase of their project, Dougherty and Chumacero did a case study—through painting and film—of this plant, trying to convey its relationship to its environment. They will return at the height of summer and fall to do subsequent case studies in painting and film of small groups of native plants, contrasting these with studies of flora in The Huntington’s more formal, cultivated gardens. They will also harvest seeds and use the native plants to the extent allowed, not just observing but building symbiotic relationships with the flora and inviting visitors to do the same during interactive workshops they plan to host in the fall.

 

Zya Levy

“I really view plants as storytellers,” says botanist Zya Levy, who co-founded the project We the Weeds in Philadelphia. She and her collaborator, Kate Pomerantz, would lead walking tours through the city, showing what plants and weeds in particular could say about the environment. Certain weeds become resistant to toxins, for instance, to survive in a city’s industrial areas. Researching at The Huntington is different, however, because, unlike urban weeds, most of the plants at The Huntington didn’t serendipitously take root in the gardens. As a result, they tell different kinds of stories. Levy has begun to study the Golden Barrel Cactus, of which The Huntington has many. The ball-shaped plant existed only in a volcanic valley in Mexico until a German collector, Heinrich Hidman, brought it back to Germany in the late 1800s, turning it into a collector’s item. Thanks to over-eager collectors and flooding caused by a dam project, the cactus became endangered in its native habitat but ubiquitous elsewhere. “You see it in front of gas stations in Los Angeles,” Levy observes. She is exploring how to tell the stories of such plants—whether through sketches, photographs, or audio collages—in ways that will convey the full effect they have on our wild and urban environments.

 

events



Bodies of Lineage
9.14.17 (Thursday) 7pm
@ Rothenberg Hall, The Huntington


A movement, a moment—a fleeting phrase to remind you of where you began and who you’ve become. Join us for an intimate evening of song, dance, and narrative in an event crafted by artist Jheanelle  Garriques of Naked Narratives, in collaboration with the Sokamba Performing Arts Company. The presentation is inspired by the 18th-century feminist Elizabeth Montagu, founder of the literary salon known as the Blue Stockings Society. Montagu’s papers are part of The Huntington’s collections. In Montagu’s tradition, Naked Narratives has hosted feminist coteries around the globe using storytelling to uplift and empower marginalized voices. This presentation will feature queer and femme poets, musicians, and dancers of color sharing their stories, engaging with themes rooted in the body and the human experience.  This program is a part of The Huntington’s contemporary arts initiative /five, in partnership with Women’s Center for Creative Work. Free; no reservations required.

Location: Rothenberg Hall, The Huntington

 

Lesbian Pulp
9.29.17 (Friday) 7–10pm
10.7.17 (Saturday) 4–9pm
10.8.17 (Sunday) 5–9pm
@ Women’s Center for Creative Work

Artist Kiki Loveday (née kerrie welsh) leads a series of paper-making workshops in a program called Lesbian Pulp, an experiment in queer community, storytelling, and historiography.  Participants will use recycled materials (such as lesbian pulp novels and personal ephemera) to create paper on which to write love letters and stories of encounter. The program is a component of “What You Love,” a project produced by Loveday as part of The Huntington’s contemporary arts initiative /five, in partnership with Women’s Center for Creative Work. Participants may attend individual sessions or the full series. Free; advanced reservations required.

For more information, contact info@wccw.us

 

Location: Women’s Center for Creative Work

Session descriptions:

9.29.17 – Potluck and show-and-tell. Participants should bring materials they wish to recycle into “lesbian pulp.” The group will get to know each other in a casual social environment by sharing the stories of the materials they’ve brought. A movie screening and discussion of a mystery lesbian pulp film will conclude the evening.

10.7.17 – Paper-making workshop. Participants will be guided through the process of paper-making, using materials they have brought to recycle into “lesbian pulp.” Over a casual potluck dinner, the group will share stories and work collaboratively.

10.8.17 – Storytelling and letter writing workshop. Participants will share, work collaboratively, and write their stories or letters on the paper they have made.

Garden Tour Series
A Walk on the Prickly Side: The Desert Garden at The Huntington
11.11.17 (Saturday) 9:30–10:30am
Cactus Amongst Us: Neighborhood Tour in Highland Park
11.11.17 (Saturday) 4pm
Downtown Desert: Landscape Tour at Grand Park
11.12.17 (Sunday) 2 pm

Botanist Zya Levy will lead a series of walking tours exploring the botanical histories and cultural uses of plants that can be found growing throughout Southern California—in The Huntington’s 10-acre Desert Garden, around a local community, and in a downtown Los Angeles park. Tours will highlight plants that are common horticulturally but rare in the wild, and will include discussion about the effects of botanical collections on biodiversity in both urban and wild spaces.  This program is a part of The Huntington’s contemporary arts initiative /five, in partnership with Women’s Center for Creative Work. Free; reservations required. Space is limited.

For more information, contact info@wccw.us

 

LOCATIONS:

Desert Garden, The Huntington

Register for The Huntington tour

Highland Park, CA (meeting place TBA)
Grand Park, Downtown L.A. (meeting place TBA)

Register for Highland Park and Grand Park tours

Exhibition: COLLECTION/S: WCCW/five at The Huntington
11.18.17–2.12.18

The exhibition “COLLECTION/S: WCCW/five at The Huntington,” on view in the Virginia Steele Scott Galleries of American Art from Nov. 18, 2017 through Feb. 12, 2018, will feature an installation of paintings, sculpture, textiles, video, writings, and other new works along with performances, talks, and tours by the artists.

Live Free or Die:
Artist Talk with Soyoung Shin and Juliana Wisdom
1.27.18 (Saturday) 2pm
@ Rothenberg Hall, The Huntington

Artists Soyoung Shin and Juliana Wisdom will discuss the influences of French history on their new work, inspired by French decorative art at The Huntington. The conversation is moderated by Catherine Hess, chief curator of European art at The Huntington and interim director of the Art Collections. Shin’s project, “Picture Elements” (named for the words from which “pixel” is derived) focuses on the 18th-century carpets and tapestries commissioned by King Louis XIV for the Grand Gallery of the Louvre, and explores the ways in which the textile craft overlaps with modern computing.  Wisdom is developing new work in response to The Huntington’s 18th-century French porcelain collection. Emulating the Sèvres Manufactory’s techniques with both traditional and new materials, Wisdom has created sculptures that seek to broaden the historical narrative of Sèvres production by including the often-anonymous women who served as both makers and benefactors. This program is a part of The Huntington’s contemporary arts initiative /five, in partnership with Women’s Center for Creative Work. Free; no reservations required.

Location: Rothenberg Hall, The Huntington

Bodies of Lineage
9.14.17 (Thursday) 7pm
@ Rothenberg Hall, The Huntington


A movement, a moment—a fleeting phrase to remind you of where you began and who you’ve become. Join us for an intimate evening of song, dance, and narrative in an event crafted by artist Jheanelle  Garriques of Naked Narratives, in collaboration with the Sokamba Performing Arts Company. The presentation is inspired by the 18th-century feminist Elizabeth Montagu, founder of the literary salon known as the Blue Stockings Society. Montagu’s papers are part of The Huntington’s collections. In Montagu’s tradition, Naked Narratives has hosted feminist coteries around the globe using storytelling to uplift and empower marginalized voices. This presentation will feature queer and femme poets, musicians, and dancers of color sharing their stories, engaging with themes rooted in the body and the human experience.  This program is a part of The Huntington’s contemporary arts initiative /five, in partnership with Women’s Center for Creative Work. Free; no reservations required.

Location: Rothenberg Hall, The Huntington

 

Lesbian Pulp
9.29.17 (Friday) 7–10pm
10.7.17 (Saturday) 4–9pm
10.8.17 (Sunday) 5–9pm
@ Women’s Center for Creative Work

Artist Kiki Loveday (née kerrie welsh) leads a series of paper-making workshops in a program called Lesbian Pulp, an experiment in queer community, storytelling, and historiography.  Participants will use recycled materials (such as lesbian pulp novels and personal ephemera) to create paper on which to write love letters and stories of encounter. The program is a component of “What You Love,” a project produced by Loveday as part of The Huntington’s contemporary arts initiative /five, in partnership with Women’s Center for Creative Work. Participants may attend individual sessions or the full series. Free; advanced reservations required.

For more information, contact info@wccw.us

 

Location: Women’s Center for Creative Work

Session descriptions:

9.29.17 – Potluck and show-and-tell. Participants should bring materials they wish to recycle into “lesbian pulp.” The group will get to know each other in a casual social environment by sharing the stories of the materials they’ve brought. A movie screening and discussion of a mystery lesbian pulp film will conclude the evening.

10.7.17 – Paper-making workshop. Participants will be guided through the process of paper-making, using materials they have brought to recycle into “lesbian pulp.” Over a casual potluck dinner, the group will share stories and work collaboratively.

10.8.17 – Storytelling and letter writing workshop. Participants will share, work collaboratively, and write their stories or letters on the paper they have made.

Garden Tour Series
A Walk on the Prickly Side: The Desert Garden at The Huntington
11.11.17 (Saturday) 9:30–10:30am
Cactus Amongst Us: Neighborhood Tour in Highland Park
11.11.17 (Saturday) 4pm
Downtown Desert: Landscape Tour at Grand Park
11.12.17 (Sunday) 2 pm

Botanist Zya Levy will lead a series of walking tours exploring the botanical histories and cultural uses of plants that can be found growing throughout Southern California—in The Huntington’s 10-acre Desert Garden, around a local community, and in a downtown Los Angeles park. Tours will highlight plants that are common horticulturally but rare in the wild, and will include discussion about the effects of botanical collections on biodiversity in both urban and wild spaces.  This program is a part of The Huntington’s contemporary arts initiative /five, in partnership with Women’s Center for Creative Work. Free; reservations required. Space is limited.

For more information, contact info@wccw.us

 

LOCATIONS:

Desert Garden, The Huntington

Register for The Huntington tour

Highland Park, CA (meeting place TBA)
Grand Park, Downtown L.A. (meeting place TBA)

Register for Highland Park and Grand Park tours

Exhibition: COLLECTION/S: WCCW/five at The Huntington
11.18.17–2.12.18

The exhibition “COLLECTION/S: WCCW/five at The Huntington,” on view in the Virginia Steele Scott Galleries of American Art from Nov. 18, 2017 through Feb. 12, 2018, will feature an installation of paintings, sculpture, textiles, video, writings, and other new works along with performances, talks, and tours by the artists.

Live Free or Die:
Artist Talk with Soyoung Shin and Juliana Wisdom
1.27.18 (Saturday) 2pm
@ Rothenberg Hall, The Huntington

Artists Soyoung Shin and Juliana Wisdom will discuss the influences of French history on their new work, inspired by French decorative art at The Huntington. The conversation is moderated by Catherine Hess, chief curator of European art at The Huntington and interim director of the Art Collections. Shin’s project, “Picture Elements” (named for the words from which “pixel” is derived) focuses on the 18th-century carpets and tapestries commissioned by King Louis XIV for the Grand Gallery of the Louvre, and explores the ways in which the textile craft overlaps with modern computing.  Wisdom is developing new work in response to The Huntington’s 18th-century French porcelain collection. Emulating the Sèvres Manufactory’s techniques with both traditional and new materials, Wisdom has created sculptures that seek to broaden the historical narrative of Sèvres production by including the often-anonymous women who served as both makers and benefactors. This program is a part of The Huntington’s contemporary arts initiative /five, in partnership with Women’s Center for Creative Work. Free; no reservations required.

Location: Rothenberg Hall, The Huntington

stories


BLOG | Artists in the Library

BLOG | Art Inspiring Art

BLOG | Engaging with the Collections

PHOTOS | #5atTheH

PRESS RELEASE | 2017

ANNOUNCEMENT | 2017

BLOG | Women Making Art

aboutsm_five


/five is a contemporary arts initiative centered on five year-long collaborations between The Huntington and a variety of arts and cultural organizations. The aim is to engage The Huntington’s rich library, garden, and art collections in new and thought-provoking ways. Possible outcomes include site-specific installations, educational programming, performance pieces, sound work, film, or myriad other art forms.

 

Each year’s collaboration will be announced toward the start of the calendar year. Information, photos, and stories about each collaboration and the associated artworks and events will be added to this site as they become available.

 

The /five initiative is made possible by a generous gift from The Cheng Family Foundation.

Additional funding for the second year of /five was provided by a grant from the Pasadena Art Alliance.